Cell Support




Quinine has been proven effective against cancer in various in vitro studies. Quinine, a natural alkaloid exhibited a distinct antiproliferative and pro‑apoptotic effect in HeLa and A549 tumor cell lines via the inhibition of the antiapoptotic protein, B‑cell lymphoma (BCL)‑2, and activation of the pro‑apoptotic factor, BCL‑2‑associated X protein. Quinine inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced activation of AKT by inhibiting its phosphorylation at Thr‑308 and Ser‑473, and reversing LPS‑induced proliferation. These results suggested that the inhibition of AKT activation via targeting of TRAF6 with quinine may be a viable anticancer therapeutic approach and a successful example of the alternative use of the original therapeutic properties of this well‑known natural product.” 


Allicin is the main active ingredient in freshly-crushed garlic and some other allium plants, and its anticancer effect on cancers of digestive system has been confirmed in many studies. In epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and biliary tract cancer, the anticancer effect of garlic has been confirmed consistently. In vivo studies further demonstrate that allicin and its secondary metabolites inhibit cancers of the digestive system. This review describes the mechanisms against cancers of digestive system and therapeutic potential of allicin and its secondary metabolites.


Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (or simply called Stevia), a perennial shrub from South America and indigenous to Paraguay, is widely known as a natural sweetener, which is 300–450 times sweeter than sucrose. Several reports confirm that Stevia also exhibits several biological effects valuable to human health [3,4,5]. Stevia consumption appears to have positive outcomes in chronic diseases, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, while numerous studies describe its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects [3,4,5]. These properties are attributed to the plant’s leaf extracts [6,7,8,9], which contain secondary metabolites, such as steviol glycosides (SGs), [10,11] and polyphenols [12] with potentially important bioactive effects. SGs are responsible for the plant’s sweet taste and are classified as ent-kaurane type diterpenes with a distinct chemical structure composed of sugar moieties attached to an aglycone named Steviol 

Antitumor Effects of Stevia Rebaudiana Derivatives
SGs metabolism renders stevia consumption a potentially healthy choice that may contribute to reduced glucose levels in the blood circulation resulting in a number of health benefits, as mentioned before and depriving tumor cells from an essential source of energy. In parallel, the plant derivatives manifest cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells and in vivo tumor models, as recent research suggests. An overview of the most important data from published literature will be discussed in the following sections.

Antitumor Effects of Stevia rebaudiana Derivatives in Breast Cancer
Breast cancer has risen to be the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide with growing evidence indicating that lifestyle factors, including diet, may be associated with a higher risk [1,2]. A nutritional plant-based intervention, as part of a preventive or therapeutic approach against the disease, may contribute to reducing cancer incidence and improving patient outcome [2]. Based on the studies discussed in this section, stevia products may be valuable components of such a diet.